Fluency Interventions for Struggling Readers in Grades 6-12: A Research Synthesis


This article describes how fluency instruction is typically provided in elementary grades and includes implications for older readers with inadequate reading fluency. Findings from this study build on earlier research by Wexler et al. (2008) and provide additional recommendations: (a) increase the amount and variety of text read, (b) build background knowledge, (c) explicitly teach vocabulary, (d) base interventions on individual student need, and (e) monitor progress frequently and adjust instruction as needed.


Steinle, P. K., Stevens, E., & Vaughn, S. (2021). Fluency interventions for struggling readers in grades 6 to 12: A research synthesis. Journal of Learning Disabilities [OnlineFirst]. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219421991249

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